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Plutchik's Eight Basic… Dyad's: Combinations… Lesson Summary

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Lesson Transcript

Yolanda has taught college Psychology and Ethics, and has a doctorate of philosophy in counselor education and supervision.

Robert Plutchik was a psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. Learn more about Plutchik's theory, the wheel of emotions, primary emotions, and dyads.

When we think about our emotions, we tend to think of them solely as states of feeling. For example, we may describe happiness as the state of feeling joy or pleasure. Psychologist Robert Plutchik states that there are eight basic emotions: joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, anticipation, anger, and disgust. Plutchik created the wheel of emotions , which illustrates the various relationships among the emotions.

Academic rigor, journalistic flair
The dying art of storytelling in theclassroom
Catherine Heinemeyer


Postdoctoral researcher and arts practitioner, York St John University

Catherine Heinemeyer received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council for her research into storytelling with young people.

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provides funding as a member of The Conversation UK.

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Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons license.

Storytelling may be as old as the hills but it remains one of the most effective tools for teaching and learning. A good story can make a child (or adult) prick up their ears and settle back into their seat to listen and learn.

But despite the power a great story can have, storytelling has an endangered status in the classroom – partly due to a huge emphasis on “ active learning ” in education. This is the idea that pupils learn best when they are doing something – or often, “seen to be doing” something.

Any lesson in which a teacher talks for 15 or more uninterrupted minutes would be regarded today as placing pupils in too passive a role. Indeed, even in English lessons teachers now very rarely read a whole poem or book chapter to pupils, something which now worries even OFSTED .

Bringing history to life

By contrast, teaching, particularly in the humanities, before the 1960s was heavily dependent on storytelling by teachers. A teacher would give a class, say, an account of the English Civil War, based on her own knowledge, reading and imagination.

The teacher would try to bring the febrile context, the battling causes, and the battles themselves to life. She might add an anecdote of her own visit to a village in which Charles I was said to have hidden out. The pupils would then write their own individual accounts of the history – the story – they had just heard, perhaps “from the perspective of a common footsoldier”.

Clearly, this approach has many limitations. There was often very little scope for critical discussion and pupils were over-reliant on their teachers’ view of events. But we mustn’t lose sight of the value of what was happening in that history classroom.

Pupils had the chance to become deeply absorbed in a context that was utterly alien to them – and their life experience was extended. Their imaginations were able to stitch this exotic secondhand experience to their library of personal experiences. In their retellings, they were never “just” copying, but making sense and interpreting.

Layered learning

Influential educational thinkers such as Small Leather Goods Belts Tory Burch eosM3Akv
have recognised the deep, contextually embedded, multi-layered learning that a story enables as a form of knowledge in its own right. My colleague Matthew Reason and I have called this “ storyknowing ”.

And in this way, the storytelling of teachers and the storytelling of pupils can nourish each other – as I found in my long-term collaboration with secondary humanities teacher Sally Durham.

A story from me about my German mother-in-law’s World War Two experiences would trigger anecdotes from pupils and teaching assistants about their own relatives’ opposite perspective on the same events – until we had built a three-dimensional picture of the situation, and gained respect for each other’s experiential knowledge.

A tree falls in the woods

One day our topic was rainforest destruction. We asked the pupils to share their most powerful memories of trees and forests, until the classroom atmosphere began to feel almost “wooded”. I then told the story of an indigenous Indonesian chief who was approached by government officials to sell his people’s land for logging, to make space for poor tenant farmers.

The usually rambunctious pupils, without exception, listened avidly for 15 minutes, until I paused at a crucial point. They then experimented with their own endings to the story (many were by now confident storytellers).

At first these endings were optimistic, but as the pupils played out the tensions and power dynamics of the interactions between loggers, forest people, tenant farmers, experts and officials, the likelihood of the forest’s destruction hit them.

At the group’s suggestion, we went online to research the work of organisations which support indigenous peoples worldwide to defend at least parts of their homeland. The level of complexity in the pupils’ stories and questions was such that we felt more like university lecturers than teachers of a “low ability” class of 12-year-olds.

What all this reveals is that we need to challenge the idea that pupils listening to a story are in a passive (or non-learning) role. As one of the pupils in the class I worked with explains:

And as my story shows, the more complex the area of human experience, the more need there is for building knowledge through an exchange of stories.

It’s just – you know when you’re telling a story and some of us put our heads down like that [puts head down on folded arms] – it’s only because some of us do it to, like, picture the images in our heads (Joe age 12)

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, but they haven’t said much about how they plan to handle synchronizing object accesses aside from using locks. We will also have locks, but we also came up with optimizations to avoid locking in most cases.

Another approach was the title locking scheme in SpiderMonkey. It has since been removed. That scheme also involved per-object locks, but did not have our optimizations for avoiding locking in most cases.

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, a runtime that supports many dynamic languages including JavaScript. That scheme requires objects that are shared to use synchronization for all writes. Sharing is detected by a write barrier. When a thread-local object is stored into a shared object, the runtime will traverse objects transitively reachable from the escaping object. All of those objects are marked shared so that future writes to those objects use synchronization. Our scheme does not require synchronization on shared writes, except when those writes are transitions. Our scheme does not require traversing object graphs; transition thread locality inference is on a per-object basis. A TTL object may point to a non-TTL object or vice-versa.

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, which allows fast reads and writes to objects that may have their layout changed. Readers need an extra load (which has to be fenced or dependent), writers have to acquire a read lock (which can be as cheap as a pair of fenced loads and a branch), and transitions have to acquire a write lock and do some extra book-keeping. We suspect that this has a similar cost model to segmented butterflies, except for writes. Segmented butterflies only require an extra dependent load for writes, which is a bit cheaper than acquiring a read lock, which requires two loads fenced around a store. Fencing loads around a store is inconvenient; for example forcing a store to happen before a load on x86 requires an xchg instruction for the store, which is more expensive than just doing a mov . On ARM it requires using acq/rel variants for the loads and stores. On the other hand, the extra dependent load for writing to a segmented butterfly requires no extra fencing on either x86 or ARM. Transitions and reads are probably equally fast with segmented butterflies and layout locks, but writes matter a lot to us. Writes happen often enough that segmented butterflies are likely to be noticeably faster than layout locks for the JavaScript object model. On the other hand, the method of segmentation is not easy to reproduce in many different kinds of data structures. Since it is more general, the layout lock could be useful for more complex data JSC data structures like and Map / WeakMap / Set . Those data structures may be too complicated for segmentation, but not too complicated for the layout lock. Like segmented butterflies, layout lock can be combined with transition thread locality inference to avoid doing any of the locking until it’s needed to protect racy transitions.

July 4 Events at Presidential Libraries

Celebrate July 4th at thePresidential Libraries

Herbert Hoover Presidential Library-Museum, West Branch, IA On Wednesday, July 4 at 2p.m. , the Eastern Iowa Brass Band will perform a free concert in the Village Green.A reading of the Declaration of Independence will precede the band performance. The Village Green in West Branch is on the corner of Parkside Drive and Main Street.

Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum, Independence, MO The library will broadcast the Washington, DC, Declaration of Independence Reading Ceremony in the lobby.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum, Abilene, KS The library campus will be open from8 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.Broadcast of the Washington, DC, Declaration of Independence Reading at 10 a.m. (CT) in the Visitors Center Auditorium. Active duty military receive free admission.

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston, MA The museum will be open 9 a.m.–5 p.m. , and free admission will be extended to all members of the active military.

Thelibrarywill show a livestream of the Washington, DC, Declaration of Independence Reading Ceremony in thetheater ( 10 a.m. ).

Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum, Austin, TX The museum will be open 9 a.m.–5 p.m. , with free museum admission to celebrate the Fourth of July. Participates in the Blue Star Museums program offering free admission to the nation’s active duty military personnel, including National Guard and Reserve, and their families through Labor Day 2018.

Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, Yorba Linda, CA Sunday, July 1, at noon : 4th of July concert by Huntington Beach Band, Tom Ridley, conductor.

July 4

All day:Meet and take photos with American History Heroes George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Richard Henry Lee, and Abigail Adams.

10:45 a.m.:Opening Ceremony- Experience a historical portrayal of the “Shot Heard Round the World,” the first shot of the American Revolution.

11:45 a.m.,3:15 p.m., and 4:15 p.m.: Authentic musket firing demonstrations

Noon:The renowned 90-memberPlacentiaSymphonic Band will play their classic set list of All-American favorites in the magnificent White House East Room.

1:30 p.m.: The Declaration of Independence, hosted by Benjamin Franklin

Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

Thelibrarywill show a livestream of the Washington, DC, Declaration of Independence Reading Ceremony in thetheater(10 a.m. ).

Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum, Atlanta, GA The library will celebrate with a naturalization ceremony as 48 petitioners from 32 countries become American citizens. The ceremony is open to the public and will be held at 10 a.m. in the Carter Presidential Museum Theater.

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum, Simi Valley, CA To celebrate our nation’s 242nd birthday, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is hosting a day full of family-fun activities. This year’s celebration includes patriotic concerts, family entertainment, games, crafts, and more. All outdoor activities are free; admission rates apply to view the Ronald Reagan Presidential Museum, Air Force One Pavilion, and our blockbuster special exhibit, “Genghis Khan: The Exhibition .” Reservations are not required for this event. For more information, call 805-522-2977.

George Bush Presidential Library and Museum, College Station, TX The George Bush Library is honored to host the College Station Noon Lions Clubs “I Love America” Fourth of July Celebration. The museum will be open from 9:30 a.m. to 8 p.m. with free admission all day. Concessions start at 5:30 p.m. and includefree watermelon while supplies last. Live entertainment and the Kids Zone will open at 6 p.m. The Kids Zone includes games and bounce houses, face painting, and Paw Paw’s Train Rides. The evening will culminate with an 8:45 p.m. concert by the Brazos Valley Symphony Orchestra and a 9:30 p.m. spectacular fireworks display. Register online .

Thelibrarywill show a livestream of the Washington, DC, Declaration of Independence Reading Ceremony in thetheater(9 a.m. ).

William J. Clinton Presidential Library and Museum, Little Rock, AR The museum will be open 9 a.m.–5 p.m. , with free museum admission to celebrate the Fourth of July.

Thelibrarywill show a livestream of the Washington, DC, Declaration of Independence Reading Ceremony in thetheater(9 a.m. ).

George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, Dallas, TX Participates in the Blue Star Museums program offering free admission to the nation’s active duty military personnel, including National Guard and Reserve, and their families through Labor Day 2018.


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If you can't come in person to Washington, DC, join our celebration through and on the US National Archives Facebook page. Or celebrate at one of our Presidential libraries around the nation.

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